Public Order Command and Tactical Training

Policy Scope:

This policy affects Public Order Training Department, police officers, District staff responsible for nominating replacement officers for the Public Support Units and staff involved in the maintenance of the Police Support Units’ personnel records.

It covers Lock-on, Tripod and Tripod (SLOT) removal teams, and all police officers involved in the authorisation to issue, deploy and use impact rounds in situations of serious public disorder as well as the Chief Constable, other Chief Officers, Designated Senior Officers, Baton Gun Commanders, and Baton Gunners.

NB This policy does not cover the use of impact rounds as a less lethal option by Firearms Officers. The guidelines and criteria for use in such circumstances differ substantially and therefore are contained in a separate Statement of Agreed Policy (2/2003) "The Police Use of Firearms" D50102.

The policy will therefore directly affect those officers trained in these tactics and other officers who are involved when these operations are being conducted. This policy will also affect members of the public and individuals who may carry out this type of protestor activity on both public and in certain limited circumstances private areas.

This policy should be read in conjunction with:

Authorised Professional Practice (APP) section entitled Public Order

and,

Authorised Professional Practice (APP) section entitled Information Management, and other relevant SYP policy documents such as D51512 Information Management and Compliance.

Policy Aims and Objectives:
 
INDEX
Introduction
Police Support Unit Tenure
Public Order Gold, Silver and Bronze Commanders
Public Order Tactical Advisors
Public Order Evidence Gatherers
Operational Support Medics
Public Order Trainers
Training and Selection of Staff
Training, Selection and Deployment of Impact Round Launchers in Situations of Serious Public Disorder
Method of Entry Training
Audit of Training
Dealing with Non-Attendance at Public Order Training
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear

 
INTRODUCTION

This policy aims to formalise the arrangements for the organisation of Public Order Training within South Yorkshire Police. This includes outlining the minimum levels of training required and number of officers in each of the roles/specialisms, tenure of post, record keeping/audit and the management of abstractions.
South Yorkshire Police have  13 Level 2 trained Police Support Units (PSUs) and 2 Level 1 trained PSUs (two from within the Tactical Support Group (TSG) and two from the District PSUs) .

Each PSU consists of 1 Inspector, 3 Sergeants and 23 PCs two of which are Operational Support Medics. Each PSU should have 3 fully equipped reserve officers.  Supply Chain Management are responsible for the supply of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to these officers. Purchase of additional PPE for staff over and above these requirements is the responsibility of the District or Department requiring it.

Level 1 and Level 2 PSU training is a package of tactics and training as prescribed by the ACPO Manual of Guidance Public Order Standards, Tactics and Training.
All Level 2 PSU trained personnel must attend all the designated training days every year. All level 2 PSU trained Personnel must complete the NCALT online learning package ‘Public Order Foundation’.

Every member of Level 1 PSU must also attend the designated additional 4 days training per year. All level 1 PSU trained Personnel must complete the NCALT online learning package ‘Public Order Foundation’

The content and level of training is the responsibility of the Head of Public Order Training or his/her deputy. That content is subject to national requirements, South Yorkshire police threat assessments, identified training needs and regional requirements and is reviewed on an annual basis.

One of the four Level 1 training days entails “unarmed rapid entry”.

Public Order Training Department will ensure that adequate notice of training dates are published and within reason arrange for “spare training” provision to accommodate those who are unable to attend their designated dates where that non attendance is unavoidable.

POLICE SUPPORT UNIT TENURE

Every Police Support Unit (PSU) officer will be required to give a minimum 3 year commitment to Public Order duties and training having joined a designated PSU. The date will commence from attendance on the Initial PSU course. This tenure policy applies to all specialist and uniform sections of South Yorkshire Police. The officer’s managers must make proper provision for the attendance of the officer at training.

An officer may only be permitted to retire from the PSU before completion of the relevant tenure at the express authority of their District PSU Champion

PUBLIC ORDER GOLD, SILVER AND BRONZE COMMANDERS

Public Order Command training and ongoing professional development will be the responsibility of the Chief Inspector Operational Support Services (OSS) Training Support together with the Head of Public Order Training.

Gold Commanders are required to be accredited through the NPIA Gold process. Once accredited through the NPIA Gold process they are required to submit a competency portfolio on an annual basis to show Operational competency.

Silver Commanders are required to be accredited through the NPIA Silver process and attend the annual Silver training day. Once accredited through the NPIA Silver process they are required to submit a competency portfolio on an annual basis to show Operational competency.

Bronze Commanders are required to be accredited through the NPIA Bronze process and attend both phases of Public Order training each year. Once accredited through the NPIA Bronze process they are required to submit a competency portfolio on an annual basis to show Operational competency.

PUBLIC ORDER TACTICAL ADVISORS

The core of Public Order Tactical Advisors (POTACs) is found within the permanent staff members of the Public Order Training Department. In addition to this a minimum cadre of 15 District POTACs will be required.

Following selection in line with agreed force procedures including a specific Public Order criteria and attendance on a recognised course, the members of the cadre will be required to provide 8 days minimum annual commitment to the force and must attend all designated training days. Those designated training days include Phase 1 and 2, a CPD POTAC event and completion of the NCALT online learning ‘Public Order Foundation and POTAC’ packages

The Head of Public Order Training (or deputy) will be responsible for the ongoing professional development of the cadre and its resilience of numbers. All professional development will be subject to both national and local criteria formulated with Performance Development.

The continuing suitability for this role will be the responsibility of the Head of Public Order Training in conjunction with the Chief Inspector OSS Training Support

PUBLIC ORDER EVIDENCE GATHERERS

The force will maintain a cadre of 15 Public Order Evidence Gatherers (POEGs) who in addition to attendance on all Level 2 training days will receive a further specialist training day per year. Officers will be nominated by District following internal selection procedures and will be drawn as far as possible evenly from across Districts. Those selected as POEGs will be required to attend a nationally recognised course.

OPERATIONAL SUPPORT MEDICS

There is a National requirement that all PSUs when deployed on Mutual Aid will provide 2 Operational Support Medics (OSMs). (For further information on Mutual Aid see Operation Support and Mutual Aid D50553.)

OSMs will be selected by Districts based on the ratio of 2 medics per PSU and will be required to be Level 2 Public Order trained and attend all designated Public Order training days.

OSMs may be part of the PSU reserves but each PSU must be capable of forming 1 Inspector, 3 Sergeants and 21 PCs plus 2 OSMs in the event of a Mutual Aid request.

The use of OSMs for force operations will be subject to a risk assessment by OPAD in conjunction with the Head of Public Order Training (or deputy).

OSMs on selection will be required to successfully complete a 4 day First Aid at Work course and attend one further specialist training day at Public Order Training as well as Phase 1 and 2 Public Order training.

OSM specialist kit is held and provided by Supply Chain Management.

PUBLIC ORDER TRAINERS

On any designated training day where the Public Order Training Department are unable to manage staffing commitments the Department will be supplemented by suitably trained staff from other Districts and Departments. The officers are selected in accordance with agreed force selection procedures including a specific Public Order criteria and must attend a recognised course and commit, with the support of the officer’s host District/Department, to provide 10 days training per year. A cadre of 32 District and Department Public Order Training officers will be maintained.

The Head of Public Order Training will be responsible for the ongoing professional development of the cadre and resilience of numbers. All professional development will be subject to both national and local criteria formulated with Performance Development.

The continuing suitability for this role will be the responsibility of the head of Public Order Training in conjunction with the Chief Inspector OSS Training Support.

TRAINING AND SELECTION OF STAFF

Selection for South Yorkshire Lock-On and Tripod (SLOT) Removal Training will be from officers within the Tactical Support Group (TSG). These officers are level one Police Support Unit (PSU) trained, deal with specialist entries and method of entry work and can readily be formed into a structured unit. Officers will apply for selection by way of the TN1 system and then undergo a selection and interview process. South Yorkshire Police will maintain a compliment of 12 suitably trained officers, comprising 10 Constables and 2 Sergeants.

The initial training will be of two days duration with a minimum of three days refresher training undertaken annually. The Head of Public Order training, or his/her nominated deputy and the Public Order Training Sergeant will decide upon the content of the training. Officers who fail to attend the yearly refresher training or complete the training in line with agreed competencies will be considered unsuitable for this particular role. Training levels will be considered in line with operational deployments, it may be necessary to increase the level of training if operational deployments do not provide the necessary exposure to retain skill levels.

Training will also include legal issues/powers relevant to the training and assessed threat and risk assessment.

TRAINING, SELECTION AND DEPLOYMENT OF IMPACT ROUND LAUNCHERS IN SITUATIONS OF SERIOUS PUBLIC DISORDER

Public disorder includes a wide spectrum of unlawful activity, which at the upper level may include serious rioting. In these situations conventional Public Order Policing responses may have been tried and failed; and taking account of the level of violence and the risk to officers, to be considered no longer appropriate.

Where on the basis of a risk assessment of existing intelligence it is believed that serious rioting would involve a risk of loss of life, serious injury or significant damage to property, an officer of Assistant Chief Constable rank may, with the prior agreement of the Chief Constable, deploy officers who are trained in the use of impact rounds as a contingency in dealing with serious disorder.

Chief Constables must have contingency plans for the availability and deployment of impact rounds in emergency situations. These should provide for the availability and deployment of impact round resources and establishment of appropriate command structures to enable an effective response to serious, spontaneous disorder.

This policy outlines the authorities, procedures and training required in order to issue, deploy or use baton rounds in situations of serious disorder.

Legal Basis

The common law duty to preserve the peace

The common law rules on self defence
The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
Section 3 of the Criminal law Act 1984
Human Rights Act 1998
Public Order Standards Tactics and Training Manual
Manual of Guidance, Complete Use of Firearms
United Nations Code of Conduct 1990-use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials

It is the Chief Constable’s intention that South Yorkshire Police will respond to instances of serious disorder using the most appropriate of a range of options available. In extreme circumstances and adhering to strict guidelines, South Yorkshire Police will use impact rounds in Public Disorder situations, when this is considered a necessary, lawful and proportionate response.

Impact rounds will only be used in a public disorder situation:-

Where other methods of policing to restore or sustain public order have been tried and failed, or must from the nature of the circumstances be unlikely to succeed if tried, and

Where their use is judged to be necessary to reduce a serious risk of:

loss of life or serious injury, or

substantial or serious damage to property where there is, or judged to be, a sufficiently serious risk of loss to life or serious injury to justify their use.

Where police are engaged in protecting property from substantial or serious damage, impact rounds may only be deployed and used where there is a serious risk of life or serious injury.

In assessing the risk to loss of life or serious injury occurring, account should be taken of the risk to Police Officers and members of the Emergency Services as well as the public and others.

TRAINING

A minimum of 10 Impact launcher Operators and 3 Impact Launcher Commanders will be trained to carry out the role.

Impact Launcher Commanders and operators will be Level (1) Trained, Public Order Officers, and will be required to pass a Firearms’ medical, eyesight and hearing test. Selection for Public Order Impact Launcher Commander and operators will be made from TSG staff and will involve a selection and interview process. Part of the selection will involve the completion of the AFO (1) document and subsequent approval process via line management, head of OSS and ACPO. Re- qualification will be in accordance with the Manual of Guidance on Police use of firearms. See below for procedures on the issue, deploy and use of impact rounds.

METHOD OF ENTRY TRAINING

Method of Entry (MOE) training encompasses the 3 disciplines: Basic, Intermediate and Advanced Method of Entry.

The content, delivery and auditing of all MOE training will be the responsibility of the Head of Public Order Training or Deputy. All MOE training will take full cognisance of National requirements, local threat assessed needs, emerging trends and Health and Safety requirements (for further information see the Generic Risk Assessment for Pre-Planned Operations Involving Forced Entry into Premises).

Basic Method of Entry

Districts are required to ensure that they have approximately 20% of operational staff trained to this level.

Districts are responsible for auditing the required numbers of trained officers and systems in place to meet operational requirements.

Intermediate Method of Entry

This course is of two days duration, with a refresher course of 1.5 days annually.

All MOE equipment and approved Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) held by Districts will be purchased at their own cost and must be stored in the approved manner. Districts will appoint officers to have a responsibility to oversee this process. The type/make of equipment to be purchased must be sourced through the Public Order Training Department to ensure a standard approach to purchase and compliance with training and Health and Safety regulations. 

Advanced Method of Entry Training

The Head of Public Order Training together with Chief Inspector Tactical Support Group will ensure that sufficient numbers of officers are selected and trained to an agreed level to meet organisational demands.

To assist the full-time MOE trainers within Public Order Training it will be necessary on occasion to have the support of an additional 4 District/Departmental trainers. Officers will be selected in accordance with agreed force selection procedures. They will then attend a recognised course and deliver MOE training in force to agreed standards for a minimum of 20 days per year. The Head of Public Order Training (or deputy) will be responsible for the ongoing professional development and suitability of trainers.

AUDIT OF TRAINING

Districts will have responsibility for the maintenance of PSU personnel records and must ensure that any request to relinquish such duties does not compromise the ability to maintain adequate staffing numbers. Districts will be responsible for the nomination of any replacement officers on PSUs.

Public Order Training together with the OSS Operational Planning Unit will have the responsibility for keeping all training records for both audit and call out purposes.

The content of all training packages will be audited together with the trainer delivering training.

Public Order Training will be responsible for the delivery of all training in accordance with national and local requirements. Source documents for training will be the ACPO sponsored: Manual of Guidance Public Order Standards tactics and training and other training decided upon by the Head of Public Order Training or deputy.

DEALING WITH NON-ATTENDANCE AT PUBLIC ORDER TRAINING

All officers serving on a PSU must attend all phases of training which will consist of the following annual commitment:

PhaseOne - 2 Days (which includes the Level 2 and 3  Learning descriptors annual refresher)
Phase  Two - 2 Days

If any officer fails to attend phase one or two, then the relevant District HR staff member  must forward to the Head of Public Order Training, or his/her deputy, an e-mail outlining the circumstances leading to that non attendance.

Following receipt of an e-mail, the Head of Public Order Training (or deputy) will decide on the appropriate course of action.  That decision will be based on the evidence presented in the e-mail, the officer’s previous training and experience and the nature of the session. If additional or development training is appropriate details will be passed onto the Public Order Training Sergeant (or deputy).  Failure to attend may lead to the suspension of the officer’s authority to perform PSU duties.

The Public Order Training Sergeant will assess the nature of that particular phase and formulate an appropriate training package.

The Public Order Training Sergeant will cause the officer concerned to be contacted to make arrangements for training.

All such training will be recorded on an attendance form in accordance with normal attendance procedures and forwarded for retention by the Public Order Training clerk.

CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR

South Yorkshire Police are required to train and maintain 9 Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) PSUs, each of which consists of 1 Inspector, 3 Sergeants and 18 PCs.

CBRN officers will be current PSU officers or those who have been current within the preceding two years.

Following an initial training course delivered to National Standards, (Police National CBRN Operational Procedures Manual) officers will be designated CBRN First Responders.  In addition each officer will be required to attend 3 CBRN training days per year, which includes any regional or local exercises and an additional 1 hour session for health and safety testing of respirators.

The Head of Public Order Training will be responsible for the content of CBRN training in accordance with national and local requirements.

CBRN PPE equipment will be funded and provided, via the National Training Centre Winterbourne Gunner through the Public Order Training Department.
Officers that fail to attend any of the 3 designated days will not be allowed to continue as a CBRN First Responder and a report will be forwarded to District Commanders in order to ascertain reasons for non-attendance.

In common with all ‘failure to attend’ designated training sessions, this seriously compromises National, Regional and Local response therefore such officers will be accountable to District management procedures.  However, some provision will be made for those officers who having made all reasonable attempts to attend designated training are unable/fail to do so.

Officers trained as CBRN First Responders will be expected to give a 3 year commitment to CBRN and associated training.  The express authority of the Chief Superintendent Operational Support Services will be required before any officer can give up their position as a CBRN trained officer within the 3 year period.

Districts will have responsibility for the maintenance of CBRN personnel records and ensure that any request to relinquish such duties does not compromise the ability to maintain adequate staffing numbers. Districts will be responsible for nomination of any replacement officers for CBRN duties.

Public Order Training together with OCPG will have responsibility for the keeping of training records for both audit and call out purposes.

Operational Support Services through the head of Public Order Training will have responsibility for the purchase of any additional specialist equipment.

CBRN Command training and ongoing professional development will be the responsibility of Chief Inspector OSS Training Support together with the Head of Public Order Training.

Further information on the minimum standards to achieve accreditation in the various public order roles described above is contained in the Public Order Accreditation Matrix.

Associated Procedural Instructions:

This policy is supported by the following procedural instructions:

Policing Public Disorder: Audit Trails and Record Keeping
South Yorkshire Lock-On and Tripod (Specialist Lock On Team - SLOT) Removal Teams
Lock-on Procedural Instructions
Lock-On Removal Team and Its Role
Tripod Removal Team and Its Role
Procedures for the authorisation to issue, deploy, and use Impact rounds in situations of serious public disorder
See also: 
The NPIA Management of Police Information guidance and other relevant SYP policy documents, such as D51512 Information Management and Compliance.

POLICING PUBLIC DISORDER: AUDIT TRAILS AND RECORD KEEPING

The ability to produce accurate and contemporaneous records of an incident will be important as evidence in the event of a post incident enquiry or to support criminal charges toward the subject(s).

All stages of the process should be documented and recorded subject to the exigencies of time and operational demand. This should include:

The intelligence and information
The planning options considered including those options rejected
The briefing
The incident log and radio messages
The de-brief

To provide corporacy to the recording of command decisions the following records should be made:

GEN 156a - Commanders Log - To be completed by a qualified public order incident manager for all pre planned operations.
GEN 156 - Tactical Advisors Log - To be completed by a qualified Public Order Tactical Advisor (POTAC) for all operations, exigencies of operational commitments allowing.
POTAC 1 - Incident Summary - To be completed by a qualified POTAC for all operations.
Communications Room Tapes and PROCAD - To be completed by or under supervision of the relevant communications room Public Order Operational Orders (Pre-Planned).
Commanders/Tactical Advisors Mini Discs or Digital Records - Should be used to record the briefing of the personnel involved in the operation and to record the ongoing decision making process and subsequent dissemination of information and intelligence.

Storage and Retention

The above mentioned documents should be stored for a minimum of 7 years, unless an inquiry or any legal proceedings are likely and then extended storage will be at the discretion of the Head of Department.

SOUTH YORKSHIRE LOCK-ON AND TRIPOD (SPECIALIST LOCK ON TEAM - SLOT) REMOVAL TEAMS

Direct action protest groups have developed techniques, which have become extremely effective in causing obstruction and problems for a multitude of organisations but in particular the police.

Consequently the police have developed and evolved tactics and training in order to combat these techniques in a safe and effective manner. Standard operating practices will cover selection, training, deployment protocols, tactical deployment and Health and Safety considerations. South Yorkshire Police will maintain a compliment of 12 suitably trained officers, comprising 10 Constables and 2 Sergeants.

This document cannot be definitive, due to the constantly developing protestor tactics, nature of the devices used and associated police response.

What are Lock-Ons?

A Lock-On or to be Locked-On is the action of one or more protesters, fixing themselves to a location of strategic importance by means of a device or piece of hardware, or to each other, or as part of direct action in an attempt to stop, delay or frustrate an event/action or to gain maximum publicity for their cause. The main principle behind a Lock-On is to create an immovable object that cannot be removed without specialist equipment, thereby frustrating or preventing the activity.

What are Tripods?

These are constructed usually from three 21ft lengths of galvanised steel scaffold tube linked together at the apex by two swivel scaffold clips. Shorter lengths have been used but the longest available are the 21ft sections. A protestor will then scale the Tripod and secure him or herself to the apex usually using a climbing harness. They will then either sit in the cradle formed by the crossover of the poles, or by suspending below the crossover. The recent introduction of Tripods constructed from wood is also a tactic developed by protestors.

Police Response

SLOT teams will usually deploy in teams of a minimum of 6, 5 Constables and 1 Supervisor. However with certain Lock-On devices the SLOT supervisor may decide, in consultation with the identified Bronze Commander that fewer staff can safely and effectively achieve the desired outcome.

The initial police response in dealing with a Lock-On or a Tripod will be determined by whether the incident is spontaneous or whether the Force has had time to pre-plan for the event. However once the Lock-On/Tripod is in place, the following should be considered before attempting to remove the obstruction.

An assessment of the obstruction should be completed by a specialist trained Protester Removal Team Supervisor (or nominated deputy) or a Public Order SLOT trainer and reported to the identified Bronze Commander, who will have been identified by the district command as having the necessary experience and skills to deal with an incident of this nature, and if possible be trained to a minimum of IPOC level. The following list is not exhaustive.

Bronze Commander appointed
Is the Tripod/Lock-On, on private or public land
Does the Tripod/Lock-On need to be isolated
Are other suitable resources available
Evidence gatherers must be in attendance
Nature of the protest, location, impact upon the event/situation and community
Traffic management available
Legality of proposed police action
Strategic and tactical plans
Command structure to be implemented

All details will be recorded on the form Operational Plan for Protestor Removal (see Appendix A). The senior officer present and supervisor must countersign this.

Health and Safety

Health and Safety considerations underpin the tactics employed by the police in dealing with direct action protestors. For each activity, especially the removal of Lock-Ons, the potential for serious injury is ever present. Once the police begin to take action they also take responsibility for the health and welfare of those protestors they seek to remove. It is with this in mind that the tactics currently employed were developed.

Risk Assessment

Home Office Generic Risk Assessment 8 provides details of generic risks in policing public disorder.

The use of the equipment has been subject to a full Health and Safety risk assessment (see Appendix B).

Additionally every deployment is supported by a Dynamic Risk Assessment which is completed at each deployment and countersigned to ensure all risks are managed and minimised at the scene. The Senior Officer and the supervisor must countersign this (see Appendix C).

It is important that in the formulation of such Dynamic Risk Assessments all parties are considered (i.e. public/protestor/police).

It should be noted that due to the dynamic nature of these operations such assessments must be ongoing.

Tactics

Once strategic points have been occupied the police response will depend on the strategic aim given by the Gold Commander and the subsequent tactical plan developed by the Silver Commander in conjunction with the Supervisor, Bronze Commander and Tactical Advisor. In some circumstances this command structure maybe condensed, however the appropriate and necessary Dynamic Risk Assessments must still be made and AT ALL TIMES THE SUPERVISOR WILL HAVE THE FINAL SAY AS TO WHETHER THE TRIPOD OR LOCK ON CAN BE REMOVED.

The tactics employed by the team will be in accordance with the training delivered and retained in a file for audit purposes by the Sergeant, Public Order Training.
In order to assist the effective execution of any tactical plan it is advisable that other resources are made available to assist with any arrests and scene security. The arrest team will take control of exhibits relating to each detained person (e.g. the lock-on device).

LOCK-ON REMOVAL TEAM AND ITS ROLE

A Lock-On Removal Team should, except when assessed by the supervisor, comprise of a minimum of 6 specialist trained officers.

Only officers, who are fully conversant with the equipment along with an in depth knowledge of Public Order issues will be used. The team will include a specialist trained supervisor or nominated deputy who can assess the situation before commencing the removal, and a Public Order Tactical Advisor.

When dealing with a Lock-On, the supervisor will brief officers as to their specific duties and tasks. The supervisor will nominate officers to observe individuals who are Locked-On and, when released make provisions for the arrests.

All safety factors should be detailed in the briefing by the supervisor or nominated deputy who will also be responsible for completion of the Dynamic Risk Assessment and Operational Plan for Protestor Removal.

Before beginning work to release persons from the Lock-On it will be good practice to inform them of the following:

"We are now ready to remove you from this Lock-On, I ask you again to release yourself from your position."

Such requests demonstrate proportionality by negotiation.

Prior to commencing the removal of the protester from the Lock-On, it should be photographed and if possible the warning recorded. Once an individual or individuals have been removed from the Lock-On, this should be photographed. The Lock-On should then be recovered for evidential purposes.

Authority Levels

Pre-planned events – Silver Commander.
Spontaneous incidents – Bronze Commander
In any event where a Tactical Advisor does not form part of the team, one should be contacted prior to any action being taken.

TRIPOD REMOVAL TEAM AND ITS ROLE

A Tripod Removal Team should comprise of a minimum of 6 specialist trained Officers, who are fully conversant with the equipment they will be using and with an in-depth knowledge of Public Order issues. The team, will contain a trained supervisor or nominated deputy, able to assess the situation before commencing the removal, and a Public Order Tactical Advisor.

Additionally this tactic will also require the assistance of 5 Common Minimum Standard (CMS) trained officers in full Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for support and scene security.

When dealing with a Tripod, the supervisor will brief officers as to their specific duties and tasks. If tactically appropriate the supervisor will designate a place where the Tripod will be moved to and the route to be taken. All safety factors should be detailed in the briefing, in particular issues in relation to height.

The supervisor will nominate an officer to observe and communicate with the protestor whilst the Tripod is being worked upon. This is vital for the safety of officers working at the base of the Tripod.

Suitable warnings should be given and attempts made to persuade the protestor to come down from the Tripod.

"We are now ready to move this Tripod, I ask you again to come down from your position."

If the protestor refuses to self-release, prior to being moved the Tripod should be photographed in situ. It should also be photographed once the Tripod has been moved, and again after the protester has either self released or been removed. It should then be recovered for evidential purposes.

Once the Tripod has been moved it may be necessary to leave officers with the device. This is to process any protestors, or arrest if appropriate, and to secure and preserve the Tripod. If the wheel system is used the wheels will be removed but the Tripod will be left braced for stability.

Consideration should be given to how the Tripod can be removed from the scene once it has been dismantled. The Tripod should only be dismantled by a Removal Team.

Authority Levels

Pre-planned events – Silver Commander
Spontaneous incidents – Bronze Commander
In any event where a Tactical Advisor does not form part of the team, one should be contacted prior to any action being taken.

In line with other types of Protestor Removal consideration should be given regularly to decide at what point to arrest. This will require auditing with consideration by the supervisor, Bronze Commander and Tactical Advisor in accordance with any agreed strategy or tactical plan, prior to working on the Tripod. Including in some circumstances whether early arrest can be problematic, for example, problems with police powers and procedures as well as any duty of care to the protester, welfare or medical considerations for arrested persons together with other legal issues.

Powers and Policy

When planning or dealing with any protest involving the use of Lock-Ons, consideration should be given to everyone’s Human Rights. The Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the rights and freedoms set out in the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law. The Act places additional responsibilities on police officers. Any police operation may interfere with rights set out in the Human Rights legislation therefore any infringement by a public authority of another person's rights must be justified. Prior to and throughout any operation the following principles must be considered:

Proportionality

Police actions must be fair and achieve a balance between the needs of society and the rights of the individual. When an objective can be achieved in more than one way, the least intrusive method should be chosen. The interference should be proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued and be necessary in a democratic society. The conduct of the operation must be continuously monitored to ensure fairness. Interference with another person's rights must be minimal.

Legality

Police actions must be supported by legislation or decided cases. Officers must know what powers they are using. (e.g. see Use of Force section below).

Accountability

Police actions will be open to scrutiny. A full record must be kept of options considered and actions taken. Factors influencing decisions must be shown.
This includes reasons for not taking action. Decision Logs are vital in ensuring all relevant details are recorded during an operation to counter potential litigation or complaints.

Necessity

Police actions must be necessary in a democratic society. Any infringement of rights must be justified.

Use of Force

As with all police activities police must not use more force than is necessary. The following powers and legislation provide guidance on the police use of force.

Common Law

Section 117 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
Section 3 Criminal Law Act 1977

PROCEDURES FOR THE AUTHORISATION TO ISSUE, DEPLOY, AND USE IMPACT ROUNDS IN SITUATIONS OF SERIOUS PUBLIC DISORDER.

These procedures lay down the criteria for the authorisation to issue, deploy and use Impact rounds in situations of serious public disorder. It also identifies key roles and their functions as well as the training required.

Key Roles

Chief Officers

In circumstances where serious public disorder is anticipated, an Assistant Chief Constable (ACC) may, with prior agreement of the Chief Constable, give authority for the deployment of trained and equipped impact launchers operators.

Designated Senior Officers (DSO)

An accredited Public Order Commander of Superintendent or Inspector rank. Trained by virtue of a course approved nationally by ACPO to make "on the ground assessments" as to whether the use of impact rounds from the first instance is justified, and that these grounds continue to be met throughout the use of the tactic. The DSO will ensure that effective processes are in place for direction and control of impact launcher commanders and impact launcher operators.

Impact Launcher Commander

An officer of Sergeant or Inspector rank trained in controlling Impact Launcher Operators in public disorder situations. The Impact Launcher Commander is responsible for directing and controlling an Impact Launcher team and specifically giving command to load and unload the Impact Launchers, as well as giving the command to use the weapon.

Impact Launcher Operator

A Police Constable trained in the use of Impact rounds in public disorder situations. Where possible Impact launcher operators should be deployed in a two-person team structure of two teams. One officer will be the Impact launcher operator, the second trained Impact Launcher Operator will assist with shield protection and assist in the recording of the use and effect of any impact round discharged. Though the Impact Launcher Commander is responsible for giving the command to use Impact rounds, it is the responsibility of individual Impact Launcher operators to identify legitimate targets and discharge impact rounds in accordance with strict guidelines and training.

Key Terms

The authorities relating to Impact rounds in public disorder are contained in a three-stage process. It is important that all officers are aware of the distinction and meaning of each:

Authorisation

Authority is given by the Chief Constable or nominated ACC to issue Impact Launchers and impact rounds from the armoury and travel to a specific location, usually a police Station or rendezvous point. This authorisation does NOT permit Impact launcher Teams to be at a location in close proximity to the scene of the disorder.

Deployment

On further authority from the Chief Constable or nominated ACC, an instruction is given by the Silver Commander to deploy to a location close to the scene of disorder. It should be stressed that this is not deployment on PSU shield lines or in direct contact with disorder, rather a tactically suitable location that ensures a rapid move forward, if required.

Use

Only when an authority to use impact rounds has been issued by Silver, will Impact Launcher operators actually take up a position in a public disorder situation. The actual discharging of impact rounds will be in accordance with the below procedures.

Before a decision to use impact rounds is put into effect, a DSO will by virtue of an on the ground assessment confirm that the situation is sufficiently serious to justify the use of impact rounds and that the criteria for use continues to be met.

Except where urgent action is necessary, in circumstances where there is an immediate risk to life, impact rounds will only be used following authorisation by the Silver Commander.

Procedures

Once it has been identified that there may be a need for the deployment of Impact Launcher operators whilst planning for or responding to disorder, the Chief Constable or on call ACC must be informed, this will usually be done by the Silver commander. This delegated authority to an ACC may be for a specified period of time, or within a specific geographical location or for a particular operation. If appropriate authority to issue impact rounds and the locating of an Impact launcher Team at a Police Station or rendezvous point as a contingency may be made by the Chief Constable or nominated ACC.

A DSO, who should be identified as soon as possible, will be appointed by Silver to assess the situation and recommend whether the situation warrants the potential use of impact rounds. Based on the DSO’s recommendation and consultation with the Chief Constable or nominated ACC, Silver may authorise the deployment of an Impact Launcher Team to a location near to the scene of the disorder. It should be stressed that this is NOT in direct contact with the disorder but a move to an area allowing a rapid move forward.

Silver will be responsible for giving the Impact launcher Team Commander the instruction for the use of Impact rounds, at which point the Impact Launcher team Commander will move his/her Impact launcher team forward and has the authority to discharge baton rounds in accordance with the following:-

Impact rounds will only be used in a public disorder situation:-

Where other methods of policing to restore or sustain public order have been tried and failed, or must from the nature of the circumstances be unlikely to succeed if tried, and

Where their use is judged to be necessary to reduce a serious risk of:

Loss of life or serious injury, or
Substantial or serious damage to property where there is, or judged to be, a sufficiently serious risk of loss of life or serious injury to justify their use.

The only occasion when the use of impact rounds is permitted without the authority of Silver is where urgent action is necessary in circumstances where there is an immediate risk to life.

The criteria for using Impact rounds is a continuous responsibility of the DSO who must be in a position to continually assess and re-assess the situation in order to recommend impact rounds are not used or their use be discontinued.

Specific responsibilities for Impact Round Launcher Team

When an Impact Launcher Team is called out, the Impact launcher Team Commander has responsibility for ensuring correct authorities have been granted and the training currency of the teams.

The Impact Launcher Teams will be issued with Impact launchers and Impact rounds from the armoury at Pioneer Close in line with Firearms operating Practices. Each Impact launcher operative will be issued with 16 baton rounds, unless specifically stated otherwise. The Impact Round Launcher Team will then go to a specified location for briefing and await further instructions.

On receiving further instruction the Impact Round launcher Team will deploy to a forward rendezvous point and come to a state of immediate readiness, unless instructed otherwise. The Impact Launcher Commander will not allow the Impact Launcher Team to be drawn forward of this point or into any disorder without specific and direct instruction from Silver. At the rendezvous point they will be briefed and whenever possible make contact with both the Silver Commander and the DSO.

Should a command to move forward and use Impact rounds be received from Silver, the Impact Launcher Commander will move his/her team to an identified and tactically advantageous location and load the weapons. It is critical that the DSO is nearby and capable of close liaison with the Impact Launcher Commander, recording any commands and warnings.

Unless circumstances do not permit, Impact rounds are to be fired only after an oral warning is given by the Impact Launcher Commander for example, by means of a loudhailer or PA system. The warning should make clear that, unless the rioting stops or the crowd disperses, impact rounds will be used after the necessary warnings. A record is to be kept of the words used in giving the warning, which should be as follows wherever possible:

"Attention, attention, this is a police warning.

Disperse immediately or impact rounds will be (deployed) (used) (used again)"

The above warning should be given as many times as is reasonably practicable in the circumstances, ensuring that police intentions to deploy tactical options and/or use force are clearly communicated, prior to use.

When the use of specific tactical options/force is imminent, a final warning message should be given, ending with the words:

"No further warning will be given".

The Impact Launcher Commander and team will move forward into a firing position, administer warning, and then the command to discharge the impact rounds "ENGAGE, ENGAGE, ENGAGE" is given. It is the individual responsibility of Impact Launcher operators to only discharge baton rounds at legitimate targets, and ensure the use of impact rounds is both lawful and in accordance with their training. At any stage the Silver, DSO or Impact Launcher Commander is authorised to stop the use of impact rounds should the criteria for their use change. The command to stop firing when either the described objectives given by Silver have been achieved or the DSO instructs will be via the Impact Launcher Commander: "STOP, STOP, STOP". Every effort must be made to secure the attendance of an Evidence Gathering Team who will record all warnings, and the situation before, during and after the discharge of baton rounds.

All Command decisions in respect of the issue, deployment and authority to use impact rounds will be fully recorded and documented. The DSO will be responsible for documenting the assessment of the situation and rationale pertaining to the decision to recommend use of impact rounds. The Impact Launcher Commander will ensure that a record is maintained of the firing of Impact launchers and that Impact Launcher operators complete reports pertaining to the firing of Impact rounds. The Impact Launcher operator reports will include the reason for the firing of Impact rounds, information about the outcome and number of rounds fired, together with any known injuries that may have occurred as a result of using these impact rounds.

Equality Act 2010:
The Act creates a statutory requirement for all Functions and Policies (Including Procedural Instructions) to be analysed for their effect on equality, diversity and human rights, with due regard to the General Duty.

In principle, this document has been assessed for discrimination, which cannot be justified, among other diverse groups.

Human Rights/Discretion:

The purpose of providing policy is to give an indication to staff of the expected course of action.  However it is not possible to cater for every possible combination of factors that would justify a departure from stated policy.  The Human Rights Act 1998 requires the proper use of discretion at all times and nothing within this policy and associated procedural instructions prohibits the proper use of discretion in appropriate circumstances.

Where action is taken that has the potential to interfere with an individual’s Human Rights, the reasons behind the making of the decision to act in that way should be recorded on the appropriate forms, or where this is not practicable, in pocket books or policy logs.

Review Arrangements:

This policy together with its Equality Analysis will be reviewed every 2 years.

Rights of redress for members of the public:

Anyone who feels that a member of staff has behaved incorrectly or unfairly, or who is dissatisfied with organisational matters, service delivery or other operational policing issues, has the right to make a complaint.

Initial action should be taken in one of the following ways:

  • Complain in writing or in person to the Senior Officer at the appropriate police station or to the Chief Constable of the force concerned.
  • Visit a local Citizens' Advice Bureau
  • Contact a Solicitor

Rights of redress for South Yorkshire Police personnel:

South Yorkshire Police personnel who feel they have grounds for concern in relation to the implementation of policies may, as appropriate:

  • Pursue concerns through their line manager.
  • Contact a First Contact Advisor.
  • Pursue a grievance formally through the South Yorkshire Police Fairness at Work Procedure.
  • Seek advice from their staff association or trades union.
  • Use procedural instruction D50241 Management of Complaints, in the section entitled Handling Complaints relating to Direction and Control.

Start:
21 August 2006

This statement of agreed policy replaces previous refs D51325, D51326, D51215, D51260, D51261, D50117 and D50118.

Equality Analysis:
D51325 - Public Order.pdf (Attached below)

Date: 

Monday, 21 August, 2006 - 00:00

Attachment: